What's So Special about the Nanoscale? (2022)

Nanoscale particles are not new in either nature or science. However, the recent leaps in areas such asmicroscopy have given scientists new tools to understand and take advantage of phenomena that occur naturally when matter is organized at the nanoscale. In essence, these phenomena are based on "quantum effects" and other simple physical effects such as expanded surface area (more on these below). In addition, the fact that a majority of biological processes occur at the nanoscale gives scientists models and templates to imagine and construct new processes that can enhance their work in medicine, imaging, computing, printing, chemical catalysis, materials synthesis, and many other fields. Nanotechnology is not simply working at ever smaller dimensions; rather, working at the nanoscale enables scientists to utilize the unique physical, chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of materials that naturally occur at that scale.

What's So Special about the Nanoscale? (1)

Computer simulation of electron motions within a nanowirethat hasa diameter in
the nanoscale range. (Image: NSF multimedia/ Eric Heller Gallery)

Scale at which Quantum Effects Dominate Properties of Materials

When particle sizes of solid matter in the visible scale are compared to what can be seen in a regular optical microscope, there is little difference in the properties of the particles. But when particles are created with dimensions of about 1–100 nanometers (where the particles can be “seen” only with powerful specialized microscopes), the materials’ properties change significantly from those at larger scales. This is the size scale where so-called quantum effects rule the behavior and properties of particles. Properties of materials are size-dependent in this scale range. Thus, when particle size is made to be nanoscale, properties such as melting point, fluorescence, electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and chemical reactivity change as a function of the size of the particle.

(Video) iKnow Nano: What is different about the Nanoscale?

Nanoscale gold illustrates the unique properties that occur at the nanoscale. Nanoscale gold particles are not the yellow color with which we are familiar; nanoscale gold can appear red or purple. At the nanoscale, the motion of the gold’s electrons is confined. Because this movement is restricted, gold nanoparticles react differently with light compared to larger-scale gold particles. Their size and optical properties can be put to practical use: nanoscale gold particles selectively accumulate in tumors, where they can enable both precise imaging and targeted laser destruction of the tumor by means that avoid harming healthy cells.

A fascinating and powerful result of the quantum effects of the nanoscale is the concept of “tunability” of properties. That is, by changing the size of the particle, a scientist can literally fine-tune a material property of interest (e.g., changing fluorescence color; in turn, the fluorescence color of a particle can be used to identify the particle, and various materials can be “labeled” with fluorescent markers for various purposes). Another potent quantum effect of the nanoscale is known as “tunneling,” which is a phenomenon that enables the scanning tunneling microscope and flash memory for computing.


Scale at Which Much of Biology Occurs

Over millennia, nature has perfected the art of biology at the nanoscale. Many of the inner workings of cells naturally occur at the nanoscale. For example, hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen through the body, is 5.5 nanometers in diameter. A strand of DNA, one of the building blocks of human life, is only about 2 nanometers in diameter.

Drawing on the natural nanoscale of biology, many medical researchers are working on designing tools, treatments, and therapies that are more precise and personalized than conventional ones—and that can be applied earlier in the course of a disease and lead to fewer adverse side-effects. One medical example of nanotechnology is the bio-barcode assay, a relatively low-cost method of detecting disease-specific biomarkers in the blood, even when there are very few of them in a sample. The basic process, which attaches “recognition” particles and DNA “amplifiers” to gold nanoparticles, was originally demonstrated at Northwestern University for a prostate cancer biomarker following prostatectomy. The bio-barcode assay has proven to be considerably more sensitive than conventional assays for the same target biomarkers, and it can be adapted to detect almost any molecular target.i

(Video) What makes Nanotechnology Special?

Growing understanding of nanoscale biomolecular structures is impacting other fields than medicine. Some scientists are looking at ways to use nanoscale biological principles of molecular self-assembly, self-organization, and quantum mechanics to create novel computing platforms. Other researchershave discovered that in photosynthesis, the energy that plants harvest from sunlight is nearly instantly transferred to plant “reaction centers” by quantum mechanical processes with nearly 100% efficiency (little energy wasted as heat). They are investigating photosynthesis as a model for “green energy” nanosystems for inexpensive production and storage of nonpolluting solar power.ii

Scale at which Surfaces and Interfaces Play a Large Role in Materials Properties and Interactions

Nanoscale materials have far larger surface areas than similar masses of larger-scale materials. As surface area per mass of a material increases, a greater amount of the material can come into contact with surrounding materials, thus affecting reactivity.

A simple thought experiment shows why nanoparticles have phenomenally high surface areas. A solid cube of a material 1 cm on a side has 6 square centimeters of surface area, about equal to one side of half a stick of gum. But if that volume of 1 cubic centimeter were filled with cubes 1 mm on a side, that would be 1,000 millimeter-sized cubes (10 x 10 x 10), each one of which has a surface area of 6 square millimeters, for a total surface area of 60 square centimeters—about the same as one side of two-thirds of a 3” x 5” note card. When the 1 cubic centimeter is filled with micrometer-sized cubes—a trillion (1012) of them, each with a surface area of 6 square micrometers—the total surface area amounts to 6 square meters, or about the area of the main bathroom in an average house. And when that single cubic centimeter of volume is filled with 1-nanometer-sized cubes—1021 of them, each with an area of 6 square nanometers—their total surface area comes to 6,000 square meters. In other words, a single cubic centimeter of cubic nanoparticles has a total surface areaone-third larger than a football field!

What's So Special about the Nanoscale? (2)

(Video) How Do You See the Nanoscale?

Illustration demonstrating the effect of the increased surface area provided by nanostructured materials

One benefit of greater surface area—and improved reactivity—in nanostructured materials is that they have helped create better catalysts. As a result, catalysis by engineered nanostructured materials already impacts about one-third of the huge U.S.—and global—catalyst markets, affecting billions of dollars of revenue in the oil and chemical industries.iii An everyday example of catalysis is the catalytic converter in a car, which reduces the toxicity of the engine’s fumes. Nanoengineered batteries, fuel cells, and catalysts can potentially use enhanced reactivity at the nanoscale to produce cleaner, safer, and more affordable modes of producing and storing energy.

Large surface area also makes nanostructured membranes and materials ideal candidates for water treatment and desalination, among other uses. It also helps support “functionalization” of nanoscale material surfaces (adding particles for specific purposes), for applications ranging from drug delivery to clothing insulation.

(Video) What is Nanoscale Science?

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i For example, see C.S. Thaxton, R. Elghanian, A.D. Thomas, S.I. Stoeva, J.S. Lee, N.D. Smith, A.J. Schaeffer, H. Klocker, W. Horninger, G. Bartsch, and C.A. Mirkin. Nanoparticle-based bio-barcode assay redefines “undetectable” PSA and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106(44):18437–18442, 2009, doi:10.1073/pnas.0904719106.
ii For more detail, see http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/05/10/untangling-quantum-entanglement/ and associated links.
iii As of 2003, catalyst technologies accounted for over $1 trillion of revenue in the U.S. economy and about a third of the material GDP (M.E. Davis and D. Tilley, Future Directions in Catalysis Research, Structures that Function on the Nanoscale, NSF Workshop, Caltech, June 19-20, 2003; http://www.che.caltech.edu/nsfcatworkshop/#Reports).

(Video) What's So Special about the Nanoscale

How are penguins able to swim in freezing water and not get cold? Are they monogamous? Discover these and other cool penguin facts.

Fairy penguins are also known as little penguins, a very apt name for the smallest species of penguin.. The rockhopper penguin used to be considered one species, but in 2006, it was categorized as two separate species, the southern rockhopper penguin and the northern rockhopper penguin.. Little penguins will only dive between 6 feet and 150 feet on average, but king penguins can dive to depths between 300 feet and 900 feet.. Various penguin species, including yellow-eyed penguins and king penguins will eat everything from squid and crustaceans to fish like silverfish, sardines, sprats, opal fish, pilchards, and other smaller fish.. Some penguins lay two eggs per season, but the biggest species, like emperor or king penguins, lay just one.. "That a penguin rivaling the largest previously known species existed in the Paleocene suggests that gigantism in penguins arose shortly after these birds became flightless divers," wrote the researchers.. According to the IUCN, the populations of most penguin species are declining, and five species have been declared endangered: the African penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ), the Galapagos penguin ( Spheniscus mendiculus ), the yellow–eyed penguin ( Megadyptes antipodes ), the northern rockhopper penguin ( Eudyptes moseleyi ), and the erect-crested penguin ( Eudyptes sclateri ).. Ensuring penguins have enough to eat and minimizing climate change so that penguins who depend on ice can still live in those areas are important, too.

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The Frisco Heritage MuseumA museum totally dedicated to the history of this Northern Texas town, the Frisco Heritage Museum shows off the culture of the city through artifacts, film and more.. Plus, right next door is the Frisco Water Park, which has tons of fun attractions, such as The Preston Plunge (a 45-foot water slide platform), The Fort (a multi-level water playground), a lazy river and even more slides.. In addition to documenting the creation and evolution of video games, they’re also preserving as many physical artifacts as possible, but in addition to all this, they also want to make it possible for visitors to actually play a lot of the video games on display, making for a totally one-of-a-kind experience.. Dr. Rogers, born in 1861 in what is now northeast Frisco, would move away from Texas to seek his medical degree, until he later moved back to Frisco, when it was established in 1902.. Frisco SquareOf course, don’t forget to stop by Frisco Square.

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Learn more ◊ Legal Disclaimers Durability Claim based on iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro Ceramic Shield front compared with previous-generation iPhone.. When measured as a standard rectangular shape, the screen is 5.42 inches (iPhone 12 mini), 5.85 inches (iPhone 11 Pro, iPhone XS, iPhone X), 6.06 inches (iPhone 12 Pro, iPhone 12, iPhone 11, iPhone XR), 6.46 inches (iPhone 11 Pro Max, iPhone XS Max), or 6.68 inches (iPhone 12 Pro Max) diagonally.. Video recording Flash type Image stabilisation Rear camera video quality HDR video recording with Dolby Vision up to 30 fps, 4K video recording at 24 fps, 30 fps or 60 fps. Front camera Other camera features Ultra Wide and Wide cameras Ultra Wide: ƒ/2.4 aperture and 120° field of view Wide: ƒ/1.6 aperture 2x optical zoom out Digital zoom up to 5x Portrait mode with advanced bokeh and Depth Control Portrait Lighting with six effects (Natural, Studio, Contour, Stage, Stage Mono, High‑Key Light Mono) Optical image stabilisation (Wide) Five‑element lens (Ultra Wide); seven‑element lens (Wide) Brighter True Tone flash with slow sync Panorama (up to 63MP) Sapphire crystal lens cover 100% Focus Pixels (.... Rated 5 out of. 5 by. Cheese from. Best phone I have ever hadI had the IPhone 10 and I I wanted an upgrade I was going to buy the normal 12 but I saw the 12 mini and I like smaller phone so I have had it for a week and this phone is AMAZING is sooooo fast and the camera is move worthy crisp images and stunning videos and is extremely faster than the 10 but the 10 is still good but the sound is heavily not to quiet but not loud just.. Rated 5 out of. 5 by. Gavdutchname1975 from. Great little phoneI'm a smartphone enthusiast & like many other tech geeks am heavily into the android ecosystem(honestly I've spent all my money keeping up with them) , I haven't owned a apple device since the original SE but was so impressed with the iPhone 11 last year & decided to buy the 12 mini, all I can say is I'm loving having a small phone again & apple's ios is superb these days, great nightmode camera (on par with my Huawei p30 Pro), excellent video quality (best I've used) & if your worried about battery I can happily tell you it's fine, yes it's not top notch but gets me from 4am to 7pm daily with quite heavy use, I highly recommend this product (even to fellow android users)Date published: 2020-12-27

Quantum bits (aka qubits), the reader is assured, are somehow "entangled" such that they rely on one another. If more detail is needed, we're told entanglement links qubits no matter how far apart they are—so long as the qubits are “coherent.” This hardly helps! So let's try a different approach.

Alice and Bob know that Prof. Bertlmann always wears mismatched socks.. Once she measures the color of one sock, Alice instantaneously knows something about what Bob will measure about the other sock.. The next morning, he puts on a mismatched pair of quantum socks, whose colors are entangled.. Unlike his classical socks, Prof. Bertlmann’s entangled quantum socks are:. In the quantum case, if Alice measures the color of one sock, her measurement instantaneously updates the color of the other sock, which had previously been indefinite.. How does the second sock know what the first has done?”. According to hidden-variable theory, in Alice and Bob’s experiment the quantum socks are secretly predetermined (by a “hidden” variable) to be one color or another, and it only seems as though Alice’s measurement of the first sock instantaneously updates the color of the other sock.. Alice. Bob P. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B. P. B. B. P. P. P. B. B. P. B. B. B. P. P. P. B. B. P. B. B. B. B. B. P. P. P. P As you can see, the colors Alice and Bob measure are random.. What they need is to measure how correlated the socks are, so Alice and Bob create a new table where pinks are -1 and blues are +1.. This simple mathematical inequality—that the formula based on the experimental results will conditionally yield an answer no greater than 2—is at the heart of entanglement.. Before you measured them, there was no left sock color or right sock color; they were a single quantum object.” While no socks have been entangled in the real world (yet) , there have been numerous experiments confirming that quantum correlations exceed Bell’s inequality , as above.. So, what is entanglement?. Prof. Bertlmann’s quantum socks, light-years apart, are not reducible to a left sock color and a right sock color.

Videos

1. A Look at Life on the Nanoscale
(UC San Diego)
2. Science Talk: What is Nanoscience/Nanotechnology? 나노과학이 뭐예요?
(QNS Science)
3. Unique Properties at the Nanoscale
( Dr. Pervaiz Ahmad)
4. Nanotechnology: Harnessing the Nanoscale
(NBC News Learn)
5. Researching at the Nanoscale
(Western Digital Corporation)
6. Nanotechnology: A New Frontier
(Aperture)

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